During the 6th century B.C. Halkidiki was colonized by inhabitants of Halkida and Eretria and, thus, it was named after the first. It is also said that the name derives from the word “Halkos”, meaning copper in Greek, as copper used to be the main export product of the region.
Fossilized remains of extinct species found in areas such as Triglia, Nikiti and Vrassa witness that Halkidiki was alive even during the Paleolithic era and, according to the findings of Petralona cave, human habitation was evident since 700.000 years ago.
The first Inhabitants
The first known inhabitants of the region of Halkidiki were the Thracians and Pelasgians leading an organized life since 4000 B.C. when a form of society began to flourish and the first temples were being built.
The Wars & Conquerors
During the 5th century B.C. Halkidiki actively participated in the Persian wars that concluded to the siege of the ancient city of Olynthos, leader of the “Halkidian league” with 32 city members of Halkidiki. Right after the Persian wars the major cities of Halkidiki became members of the Athenian Alliance and participated in the Peloponnesian wars (431-404 B.C.) which concluded with the total destruction of the ancient city of Mende. In 348 B.C. Halkidiki becomes part of the Kingdom of Macedonia, then in 168 B.C the region comes under Roman domination and in 1430 under Turkish rule until 1912 when it’s finally liberated.