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Kythnos Island Name
Also known as Thermia in ancient times because of the thermal springs found in the village of Loutra, the island of Kythnos owes its name to its first settler, leader of the Dryopes (people that migrated from Evia) and later king of the island, Kythnos. It is also said that the name derives from the ancient Greek word Kefthemon, meaning a dim place to hide, since Kythnos was chosen by many as a hiding place from intruders and pirates of nearby settlements.
Kythnos Inhabitants and Domination
Based on findings at the excavations in the Maroulas region it has been proved that the island was inhabited since the Mesolithic period, around 9000 B.C., thus the region is known to be the most ancient settlement of the Cyclades. The first settlers according to Herodotus were the Dryopes around the 13th century B.C. and the next settlers were the Iones. 
 
Kythnos participated in the Persian wars and later on became part of the Athenian Alliance. Soon after it became part of the Roman State and it was included in the Subject of the Aegean. In 1207 it moved under Venetian domination and then it was ruled by the Castelli and Gozadini families till it was occupied by the Russians during the Turkish-Russian war. 
 
In 1827 Kythnos took part in the war against the Turks and eventually became a place of exile for political prisoners. In 1962 rebels from Syros attacked the island in order to free the prisoners and three locals, including a student, were brutally assassinated during that battle that took place in the village of Agia Irini.


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